Equine Dental Problems and their Solution


Equine Oral Examination and Treatment
For centuries, people who had horses knew the worth of caring for their animal’s teeth. Historically, the better the horse’s dentition, the more horse had importance. If we fast forward to today, we do not compromise the dental health of the horse with their price or importance. Oral problems in horses can affect their athletic performance. It can also influence their life.

Equine Teeth
Like human, horses also have two sets of teeth; one is deciduous teeth or milk teeth and the other one is permanent
teeth. The deciduous teeth erupt at 6 months of age and start to be replaced by adult teeth around 2-1/2. At the age of 5, most horses have their full permanent
teeth.

  • An adult horse has up to 44 permanent teeth including canines
  • A mare may have 36 to 44 permanent teeth. Normally a mare does not have canines.

Dental Problems, Indications & their Treatments
It is very important to diagnose dental problems early, waiting too long may increase the treatment needed or may even make remedy impossible. The horse’s teeth can be divided into two main types;

  • The incisors at the front which nip and tear the grass.
  • Premolars and molars which grind the food down into a digestible size before swallowing.

Premolar and molar problems
Sharp enamel points Sharp edges known as enamel points naturally develop as the horses teeth erupt. These sharp enamel points cause soreness, lacerations and ulcers to the sides of the cheeks and to the tongue. Normally horses with sores due to these sharp points will find it painful to chew and they give up and spit out a half chewed food. This is called quitting and is a common occurrence. With proper dental care and treatment this problem can be avoided.


Equine Cap and Molar Extractor
 Four Prong Molar Extracting Forceps
Equine Molar Spreaders 19"
 Three Prong Molar Extracting Forceps Left  Three Prong Molar Extracting Forceps Right

 Equine Molar Extracting Forceps Set


McPherson Full Mouth Speculum
 


Schulze Mouth Gag

Deciduous Teeth problems
Deciduous teeth are also known as caps. Normally adult horses have problems shedding the deciduous teeth which
can be painful causing quidding, and difficulty masticating, and can lead to bad habits like head tossing. Caps break in half because they have trouble being pushed clear by the erupting permanent pre-molar. This may cause them to
become retained and infected leading to a foul smelling odor. Between the ages of 2-1/2yrs and 5yrs it is very important, the horse should be examined every six months by a dentition.

Wolf teeth Problems
Usually they are short crowned with a root two to three times the length of the crown. These small conical teeth often interfere with the bit and as a result they are removed. This is just because of the position of the tooth, which is normally at the front of the molar arcades on the maxilla (upper jaw) and occasionally on the mandible (lower
jaw).

Ramps
Ramped molars are same as hooks but have a better slope to the tooth and can also be on the front or back, upper or lower molars. Ramps can create problems to the molar arcades alignment and exerts pressure on
the temporal mandibular joint that may cause headaches for the equine.

Hooks
These develop due to the unsettlement of the molar arcades. This is normally because of an over-bite or under-bite (parrot mouth or sow mouth) . The part of tooth which is not in any contact will erupt and get more and more pronounced. and the hooks will get bigger with the passage of time. Large hooks will cause discomfort, weight loss, choke and colic.

Excessive Transverse Ridges
These are very important for the horse to chew and break down food into a digestible size. If these ridges become too exaggerated then their reduction will be important to a normal level, which may need to be reduced on two or three different occasions.

Steps
This occurs when the clinical crown of one cheek tooth is larger than those in the rest of the arcade. A step in the molar arcade will resist the lateral excursion, and anterior/ posterior motion of the mandible. The step has to be reduced after six months tenure through burring and floating so that it doesn’t affect the horse.

Shear Mouth
A shear mouth occurs when the horse is using only one side of its mouth to chew its food. It will often cause an incisor
slant as well. This is a rare dental condition, and work to the incisors as well as the cheek teeth is required to improve the malocclusion.

Wave Mouth
This problem usually occurs due to lack of dental attention as a young horse, which are slow in eruption of caps.
Wave mouths can be difficult to correct completely in older horses. However most can be correct in younger horses with a regular maintenance of 6 months.

Diseased and infected teeth
Teeth can become infected due to trauma, abnormal wear over a long period of time. Chronic infection of the
teeth can cause general health problems, and can also cause infections of the sinus. Caries can sometimes be difficult to see properly but with the use of a good quality headlight and dental mirror this becomes easier.

Displaced and rotated cheek teeth
This is often due to overcrowding of the cheek teeth arcades. Periodontal pocketing around these
displaced or rotated teeth is normal, and they may also produce ulcers on the tongue or cheeks. This can be very painful condition. Sometimes displaced cheek teeth may require extracting, so by removal of sharp edges will stop, damaging tissues and causing ulcers.

Diastema
A diastema is a space between two teeth. These diastemas can be very painful and normally cause quidding and foul smelling breath. At this time, picking out these diastemas and flushing out the area with high pressure air and water, or in some cases widening the cavity seems to be the best treatment plan.

Supernumerary Teeth
Supernumerary teeth are rare in horses but can cause problems. It is very important that the overgrowths are reduced at least twice or three times a year.

Incisor Problems
The incisor teeth are found at the front of the mouth and are used for nipping the grass. Normally a horse has a set of
twelve deciduous incisors, which are replaced by twelve permanent incisors. One of the main dental problems occurs in the common horse due to the lack of continuous grazing.

Ventral Curvature (smile)
When the incisors are looking like a curve from both sides then it is viewed as a smile. The problem with a smile, is that the incisors cam off each other and force the cheek teeth apart too early. The problem can be corrected by using power work again, or in a mild case by using hand float, although the table angles in the cheek teeth can also
be corrected by hand.

Slant (diagonal bite)
when looking from front, incisors should look horizontal. Due to this problem the horse has upper incisors which
are too long to meet lower incisors which are too short on one side of the mouth and on the other side the problem is reversed. This problem can be overcome by power work.

Dorsal Curvature (frown)
It is the opposite of a smile but causes the same problems. It can also be tackled by power work.

Missing Tooth
If a horse does not have a permanent incisor or has a damaged incisor then a problem is found over there. The problem
is that the opposite incisor will grow in the gap and causes a blockage. The horse with this problem will be in the condition of quidding. The remedy is to reduce the overlong incisor using either a diamond disc cutter, or carbide burr. In this condition the horse will almost need regular attention.

Overbite
It looks like a parrot mouth. In most cases a method known as an “incisor reduction” and corrective floating, is done to
maintain anterior-posterior motion of the jaw, and to decrease pressure that this exerts on the Tempro-mandibular joint.

Underbite
It looks like a sow mouth. Again the most preferable method to tackle this problem is an “incisor
reduction” and corrective floating, which has the similar influence on the tempro-mandibular joint.


Pets First Aid Kit

Pet’s emergency can strike anytime; anyone who has pets must keep a pet first aid kit in easy reach. Many situations require quick action to reduce chances of injury, infection and further complications. Being prepared can keep manageable incident from becoming health threat. Someone who has faced emergency can tell it is essential.

First aid is not a substitute for veterinary treatment. However, some basic first aid can help before you are able to get your pet to a veterinarian. Veterinary care should be following first-aid attempts.

A pet’s first aid kit is the first step in being prepared should an animal emergency happen. Our Kit is designed to be used in home as well as camping outside with pets. Besides an emergency some instruments in the kit can be used regularly.

There are many pre-made kits available but building your own kit or adding to a pre-made one, may be the best way to have a kit customized to meet pet’s lifestyle and needs. Veterinarian can help you customize a first aid kit to meet pet’s specific medical needs.There are, however, some items that are necessary for any kit. Our kit contains all necessary instruments required in emergency. kit contains:

  • Kelly Forceps 14cm Curved
  • Scissors 14cm Sharp/Blunt
  • Forceps 16cm
  • Dropper
  • Universal Scissors 15cm
  • Toe Nail Clipper
  • Pouch

Pets First Aid Kit

 

The kit should also include basic supplies like:

  • Gauze
  • Nonstick bandages
  • Adhesive tape
  • Antibiotic ointment (like Neosporin)
  • Rectal thermometer
  • Syringe
  • Styptic Powder
  • Sterile Eye Wash
  • Ear wash
  • Medical Tape 1″
  • Roll Gauze
  • Vet Wrap 2″or 4″
  • Telfa pads
  • Vet-Prescribed pain relief
  • Latex or plastic exam gloves
  • Water-based lubricating jelly
  • Ice and hot packs
  • Extra towels
  • Diphenhydramine (aka Benadryl)
  • Syringe

One of the most important elements in the kit is the phone numbers:

  • Vet’s number
  • Emergency vet number
  • Poison control center number

These must be in speed dial; in an emergency there is not much time to look for them.

How First Aid kit can help?
In emergency, first aid kit can

  • Reduce stress for everyone
  • Cut recovery time
  • Empower you to effectively help
  • Being prepared can even make the difference

How to evaluate quality of surgical instruments?


How to evaluate quality of surgical instruments?
Surgical instruments are specially designed tools to perform specific operation; some surgical instruments are designed for general use in surgery, while others are designed for a specific procedure or surgery.

As these are special tools, quality is one of the key factors whether purchasing new instruments, or merely evaluating you already own. An evaluation criterion is highly dependent on the product type and its functionality e.g. endoscopes functionality and quality should not be compared with hand tools such as scissors and forceps. However some general attributes need to consider when purchasing new instruments.

Raw Material
Raw material plays vital role in surgical instruments, high quality raw material instruments last longer without loosing their shape and functionality. Selection of raw material some depends on the intended function of the tool, e.g. Scissors cannot be manufactured in non-magnet stainless steel being soft.

Surface Finish
Surgical instruments surface is polished (matt finished, mirror polished) to prevent rusting and easy cleaning before and after use. When buying new instruments ensure surface and mechanical joints are clean, smooth and free from cracks and porous materials unless specifically required for the functionality of the instrument.

Ergonomically Design
Surgical instruments should be easy to use, user-friendly and ergonomically designed.

Smooth Operation
Some surgical instruments are made of multi-parts; working of these instruments should be smooth, e.g. scissors should cut smoothly and forceps should grasp smoothly.

Passivation
Passivation is a process that prevents rusting; passivated instruments last longer without getting rust. Ask for passivated instruments when buying new.

Buying quality instruments benefits you many ways

  • Certified conformity
  • Instruments last longer with normal care
  • Do not get rusted quickly
  • Reduce repair/replacement cost
  • The instrument holds up over time
  • Pattern Consistency
  • Esthetic feel during use
  • Smooth Operation
  • Superior finish
  • Quality raw material
  • Optimal raw material
  • No manufacturing defects or flaws

And above all

  • Peace of mind

“Quality is never an accident; it is always the result of high intention, sincere effort, intelligent direction and skillful execution; it represents the wise choice of many alternatives.” (William A. Foster)


List of Bone Rongeurs Used in Dentistry



Beyer Bone Rongeurs 18.0cm
Blumenthal Bone Rongeurs 15.5cm
Blumenthal Bone Rongeurs 15.5cm
Blumenthal Bone Rongeurs 15.5cm
Boehler Bone Rongeurs 15.0cm
Cleveland Bone Rongeurs Fig 4, 14.0cm
Cleveland Bone Rongeurs Fig 4A, 17.0cm
Cleveland Bone Rongeurs Fig 5S
Friedman Bone Rongeurs 14.0cm
Friedman Delicate Bone Rongeurs 15.0cm
Friedman Mini Bone Rongeurs 12.0cm
Luer Bone Rongeurs 15.0cm
Luer Bone Rongeurs 15.0cm
Mead Bone Rongeurs Fig 1A, 16.5cm
Mead Bone Rongeurs Fig 2A, 16.5cm
Ruskin Bone Rongeurs 18.0cm

List of American Extracting Forceps used in Extration


American Extracting Forceps No. 1
American Extracting Forceps No. 1
American Extracting Forceps No. 1A – Henahan
American Extracting Forceps No. 101
American Extracting Forceps No. 103
American Extracting Forceps No. 104
American Extracting Forceps No. 10H
American Extracting Forceps No. 10H Nevius
American Extracting Forceps No. 10S
American Extracting Forceps No. 10S Nevius
American Extracting Forceps No. 13
American Extracting Forceps No. 14
American Extracting Forceps No. 15
American Extracting Forceps No. 150
American Extracting Forceps No. 150A
American Extracting Forceps No. 150S
American Extracting Forceps No. 150SK
American Extracting Forceps No. 151
American Extracting Forceps No. 151A
American Extracting Forceps No. 151S
American Extracting Forceps No. 151SK
American Extracting Forceps No. 16
American Extracting Forceps No. 16S
American Extracting Forceps No. 17
American Extracting Forceps No. 17 SK
American Extracting Forceps No. 18L
American Extracting Forceps No. 18R
American Extracting Forceps No. 2
American Extracting Forceps No. 20 L
American Extracting Forceps No. 20 R
American Extracting Forceps No. 201
American Extracting Forceps No. 203
American Extracting Forceps No. 210H
American Extracting Forceps No. 210S
American Extracting Forceps No. 213
American Extracting Forceps No. 217
American Extracting Forceps No. 222
American Extracting Forceps No. 228
American Extracting Forceps No. 229
American Extracting Forceps No. 23 S
American Extracting Forceps No. 23 SK
American Extracting Forceps No. 230
American Extracting Forceps No. 231
American Extracting Forceps No. 24
American Extracting Forceps No. 27
American Extracting Forceps No. 286
American Extracting Forceps No. 287
American Extracting Forceps No. 288
American Extracting Forceps No. 29 S
American Extracting Forceps No. 30 S
American Extracting Forceps No. 310
American Extracting Forceps No. 32
American Extracting Forceps No. 35
American Extracting Forceps No. 37
American Extracting Forceps No. 38
American Extracting Forceps No. 4
American Extracting Forceps No. 5
American Extracting Forceps No. 53L
American Extracting Forceps No. 53R
American Extracting Forceps No. 6
American Extracting Forceps No. 62
American Extracting Forceps No. 65
American Extracting Forceps No. 69
American Extracting Forceps No. 7
American Extracting Forceps No. 8
American Extracting Forceps No. 85
American Extracting Forceps No. 85A
American Extracting Forceps No. 88A
American Extracting Forceps No. 88L
American Extracting Forceps No. 88R
American Extracting Forceps No. 89R
American Extracting Forceps No. 90L
American Extracting Forceps No. 99A
American Extracting Forceps No. 99C
American Extracting Forceps No.23
American Extracting Forceps No.32 A
American Extracting Forceps No.34
American Extracting Forceps No.36

 

List of Dental Scalers

Dental Abott Scalars
Dental Abott Scalars
Dental Abott Scalars
Dental Abott Scalars
Dental Baylor Scalars
Dental Baylor Scalars
Dental Black Scalars
Dental Black Scalars Fig 1
Dental Black Scalars Fig 10
Dental Black Scalars Fig 11
Dental Black Scalars Fig 12
Dental Black Scalars Fig 2
Dental Black Scalars Fig 3
Dental Black Scalars Fig 4
Dental Black Scalars Fig 5
Dental Black Scalars Fig 6
Dental Black Scalars Fig 7
Dental Black Scalars Fig 8
Dental Black Scalars Fig 9
Dental Buck Scalars Fig 0
Dental Buck Scalars Fig 00
Dental Buck Scalars Fig 11/12
Dental Bunting Scalars Fig 10
Dental Bunting Scalars Fig 11
Dental Bunting Scalars Fig 12
Dental Bunting Scalars Fig 13
Dental Bunting Scalars Fig 14
Dental Bunting Scalars Fig 15
Dental Bunting Scalars Fig 16
Dental Bunting Scalars Fig 17
Dental Bunting Scalars Fig 18
Dental California Scalars
Dental Cleveland Scalars
Dental Columbia Scalars 13/14
Dental Columbia Scalars 2R/2L
Dental Columbia Scalars 4R/4L
Dental Crane Kaplan Scalars Fig 6
Dental Cumine Scalars
Dental Cushing Scalars
Dental Cushing Scalars
Dental Darby Perry Scalars
Dental Darby Perry Scalars
Dental Darby Perry Scalars
Dental Darby Perry Scalars
Dental Darby Perry Scalars
Dental Fehr Scalars
Dental Fehr Scalars
Dental Globe Scalars
Dental Guenther Scalars
Dental Guy Scalars
Dental Guy Scalars
Dental Guy Scalars
Dental Guy Scalars
Dental Haubeil Scalars
Dental Hirschfeld Scalars Fig 3/7
Dental Hirschfeld Scalars Fig 5/11
Dental Hirschfeld Scalars Fig 9/10
Dental Hygienist Scalars Fig H4
Dental Hygienist Scalars Fig H5
Dental Hygienist Scalars Fig H5/33
Dental Hygienist Scalars Fig H6
Dental Hygienist Scalars Fig H6/H7
Dental Hygienist Scalars Fig H7
Dental Hygienist Scalars Fig H8
Dental Hygienist Scalars Fig H9
Dental Jacquette Scalars
Dental Jacquette Scalars
Dental Jacquette Scalars
Dental Jacquette Scalars
Dental Jacquette Scalars
Dental Jacquette Scalars Fig 14/15
Dental Jacquette Scalars Fig 30/31
Dental Jacquette Scalars Fig 31/32
Dental Jacquette Scalars Fig 34/35
Dental Jacquette Scalars Fig 37/38
Dental Jacquette Scalars Fig H3/H4
Dental Langer Scalars Fig 1/2
Dental Langer Scalars Fig 3/4
Dental Langer Scalars Fig 5/6
Dental McCall Scalars
Dental McCall Scalars
Dental McCall Scalars
Dental McCall Scalars
Dental McCall Scalars
Dental McCall Scalars
Dental McCall Scalars
Dental McCall Scalars
Dental McCall Scalars
Dental McCall Scalars
Dental McCall Scalars
Dental McCall Scalars
Dental McCall Scalars
Dental McCall Scalars
Dental McCall Scalars
Dental McCall Scalars
Dental McCall Scalars
Dental McCall Scalars
Dental McCall Scalars
Dental McCall Scalars
Dental McCall Scalars
Dental McCall Scalars
Dental McCall Scalars
Dental McCall Scalars
Dental McCall Scalars
Dental McCall Scalars
Dental McCall Scalars
Dental McCall Scalars
Dental McCall Scalars
Dental McCall Scalars Fig 10A
Dental McCall Scalars Fig 11A
Dental McCall Scalars Fig 12A
Dental McCall Scalars Fig 13/14
Dental McCall Scalars Fig 13S/14S
Dental Mitchell Scalars
Dental Morre Scalars
Dental Morre Scalars
Dental Muehlemann Scalars
Dental Muehlemann Scalars
Dental Muehlemann Scalars
Dental Muehlemann Scalars
Dental Muehlemann Scalars
Dental Muehlemann Scalars
Dental Muehlemann Scalars
Dental Muehlemann Scalars
Dental Muehlemann Scalars Fig 7
Dental Muehlemann Scalars Fig 8
Dental Scalars
Dental Scalars
Dental Scalars
Dental Scalars
Dental Scalars
Dental Scalars
Dental Scalars
Dental Scalars
Dental Scalars
Dental Scalars
Dental Scalars
Dental Scalars
Dental Scalars
Dental Scalars
Dental Scalars
Dental Scalars
Dental Scalars
Dental Scalars
Dental Scalars
Dental Scalars
Dental Scalars
Dental Scalars Fig 1
Dental Scalars Fig 2
Dental Scalars Fig 3
Dental Scalars Fig 32
Dental Scalars Fig 33
Dental Scalars Fig 33-1/2
Dental Scalars Fig 33A
Dental Scalars Fig 34
Dental Scalars Fig 34-1/2
Dental Scalars Fig 34A
Dental Scalars Fig 4
Dental Scalars Fig 6
Dental Scalars Fig 7
Dental Scharmann Scalars Fig 1
Dental Scharmann Scalars Fig 2
Dental Scharmann Scalars Fig 3
Dental Scharmann Scalars Fig 4
Dental Scharmann Scalars Fig 5
Dental Scharmann Scalars Fig 6
Dental Scharmann Scalars Fig 7
Dental Scharmann Scalars Fig 8
Dental Schluger Scalars Fig 9/10
Dental Senns Scalars
Dental Shepherd Scalars
Dental Sichel Scalars
Dental Smith Scalars
Dental Sugarmann Scalars Fig 11S/12S
Dental Sugarmann Scalars Fig 1S/2S
Dental Sugarmann Scalars Fig 3S/4S
Dental Sugarmann Scalars Fig 5S/6S
Dental Sugarmann Scalars Fig 9S/10S
Dental Taylor Scalars
Dental Thorpe-l Scalars
Dental Towner Jacqueete U 15/30 Scalars
Dental Towner Jacqueete U 15/33 Scalars
Dental Towner U 15 Scalars
Dental White Scalars
Dental White Scalars
Dental White Scalars
Dental White Scalars
Dental Whiteside Scalars Fig 1
Dental Whiteside Scalars Fig 2
Dental Whitten Scalars
Dental Williger Scalars
Dental Williger Scalars
Dental Williger Scalars
Dental Williger Scalars
Dental Younger Good Scalars
Dental Younger Good Scalars
Dental Younger Good Scalars
Dental Younger Good Scalars
Dental Younger Good Scalars
Dental Younger Good Scalars
Dental Younger Good Scalars Fig 7/8
Dental Younger Scalars
Dental Zerfing Scalars

List of Dental Root Elevators

Apical Root Elevators Fig 301

Apical Root Elevators Fig 302

Apical Root Elevators Fig 303

Apical Root Elevators Fig 304

Barry Root Elevators Fig 320

Barry Root Elevators Fig 321

Barry Root Elevators Fig 322

Barry Root Elevators Fig 323

Barry Root Elevators Fig 370

Barry Root Elevators Fig 371

Bein Root Elevators Fig 1/2

Bein Root Elevators Fig 1/2

Bein Root Elevators Fig 1/2

Bein Root Elevators Fig 2/3

Bein Root Elevators Fig 2/3

Bein Root Elevators Fig 2/3

Bein Root Elevators Fig 3/4

Bein Root Elevators Fig 3/4

Bein Root Elevators Fig 3/4

Bernard Root Elevators Fig 0

Bernard Root Elevators Fig 0

Bernard Root Elevators Fig 1

Bernard Root Elevators Fig 1

Bernard Root Elevators Fig 11

Bernard Root Elevators Fig 2

Bernard Root Elevators Fig 2

Bernard Root Elevators Fig 3

Bernard Root Elevators Fig 4

Bernard Root Elevators Fig 5

Bernard Root Elevators Fig 6

Bernard Root Elevators Fig 6

Bernard Root Elevators Fig 7

Bernard Root Elevators Fig 7

Bernard Root Elevators Fig 8

Bernard Root Elevators Fig 9

Chompret Root Elevators Fig 1

Chompret Root Elevators Fig 2

Chompret Root Elevators Fig 3

Chompret Root Elevators Fig 4

Coleman Root Elevators

Coleman Root Elevators

Coleman Root Elevators

Coupland Root Elevators Fig 2,0 mm

Coupland Root Elevators Fig 2,5 mm

Coupland Root Elevators Fig 3,0 mm

Crane pick Root Elevators Fig 6

Cryer Root Elevators Fig 12

Cryer Root Elevators Fig 27

Cryer Root Elevators Fig 27S

Cryer Root Elevators Fig 28

Cryer Root Elevators Fig 28S

Cryer Root Elevators Fig 39

Cryer Root Elevators Fig 3A

Cryer Root Elevators Fig 40

Flohr Root Elevators Fig 1

Flohr Root Elevators Fig 2

Flohr Root Elevators Fig 3

Friedman Root Elevators Fig 1

Friedman Root Elevators Fig 2

Friedman Root Elevators Fig 3

Hiedbrink Root Elevators Fig 1

Hiedbrink Root Elevators Fig 1

Hiedbrink Root Elevators Fig 2

Hiedbrink Root Elevators Fig 2

Hiedbrink Root Elevators Fig 3

Hiedbrink Root Elevators Fig 3

Hylin Root Elevators Fig 1

Hylin Root Elevators Fig 2

Hylin Root Elevators Fig 3

Hylin Root Elevators Fig 4

Kopp Root Elevators Fig 1

Kopp Root Elevators Fig 1

Kopp Root Elevators Fig 2

Kopp Root Elevators Fig 2

Kopp Root Elevators Fig 3

Kopp Root Elevators Fig 3

Kopp Root Elevators Fig 4

Kopp Root Elevators Fig 4

Lecluse Root Elevators Fig 1

Lecluse Root Elevators Fig 2

Loss Root Elevators Fig 1

Loss Root Elevators Fig 2

Loss Root Elevators Fig 3

Loss Root Elevators Fig 4

Miller Root Elevators Fig 10

Miller Root Elevators Fig 11

Miller Root Elevators Fig 8

Miller Root Elevators Fig 9

Ratzow Root Elevators Fig 1

Ratzow Root Elevators Fig 2

Ratzow Root Elevators Fig 3

Seldine Root Elevators Fig 1L

Seldine Root Elevators Fig 1R

Seldine Root Elevators Fig 2

Seldine Root Elevators Fig 34

Seldine Root Elevators Fig 34S

Seldine Root Elevators Fig 46

Seldine Root Elevators Fig 4L

Vignal Root Elevators Fig 54

Vignal Root Elevators Fig 55

Vignal Root Elevators Fig 56

Vignal Root Elevators Fig 57

Vignal Root Elevators Fig 69

Walter F.Barry Root Elevators Fig 50

Walter F.Barry Root Elevators Fig 51

Warwick James Root Elevators

Warwick James Root Elevators

Winter Root Elevators Fig 11L

Winter Root Elevators Fig 11R

Winter Root Elevators Fig 12L

Winter Root Elevators Fig 12R

Winter Root Elevators Fig 13L

Winter Root Elevators Fig 13R

Winter Root Elevators Fig 14L

Winter Root Elevators Fig 14R

Winter Root Elevators Fig 1L

Winter Root Elevators Fig 1R

Procedure for Lameness Examination in Horse

Procedure for Lameness Examination
Lameness is an abnormality of the horse’s gait that could be caused by pain, a mechanical problem such as “stringhalt” (muscle spasms), or a neurological problem such as “wobblers”.

Some causes of equine lameness:

  • Abscesses in the foot
  • Hoof Wall Cracks
  • Inflammation of the foot
  • Strain in tendons or joints
  • Bone chips
  • Fractures
  • Arthritis (inflamed joints)
  • Back pain
  • Nerve damage
  • Muscle soreness
  • Wounds, cuts, and bruises

 


Visual Examination
Examine the animal visually at a distance; note the body type and condition, conformation, any shifting in weight or abnormal stances, and the attitude of the animal.

Have a closer visual examination of the animal. Look for abnormal wear in the feet, cracks in hoof, lacerations, swellings in joints or tendons, atrophy or swelling of the muscles, and any other gross changes.

Animal can also be observed during exercise, at the walk, trot, and sometimes at the canter or gallop. Mostly the trot is the most helpful gait for the exam because of its symmetry.

The examination should be done by observing the horse movement from the front, the side and from behind. Also, circling the horse or moving the horse in figure eight (8) can locate lameness.

Observe head nodding, gait deficits, alterations in the height of the foot flight arc, phase of stride, joint flexion angle, foot placement, and symmetry in gluteal rise and duration.

Palpation and Manipulation
Observe the size and shape of the foot. Compare the normal with the abnormal. Look for any abnormal hoof wear, ring formation, heel bulb contraction, hoof wall cracks and swellings, and any other asymmetries. Palpate the coronary band for heat, swelling and pain on pressure.

Lameness due to Hoof Wall Damage
Hoof Wall Cracks may be associated with lameness. This could be checked with hoof tester examination. The examination applies a hoof tester in a systematic manner, to the entire sole and frog region and hoof wall. When applied properly, this instrument allows the examiner to palpate the hoof. Medical Tools Adjustable Hoof Tester 16” new design allows adjustable jaws over entire hoof surface; longer handle provides extra leverage. Jaws remain parallel for more even and steadier diagnostic pressure,

For a sensitive horse, the examiner may need to use gentle application at first, followed by firmer pressure. The examiner is trying to identify and localize hoof sensitivity. Although this sounds simple, it requires experience.

The arm of the hoof tester that is applied to the hoof wall needs to be continually checked so pressure is not being applied to the coronet hand. I prefer to begin at the lateral or medial angle of the sole and continue examination by applying hoof tester pressure every 2 to 3cm until the entire surface of the sole has been checked.

Next apply pressure to the frog (caudal, central and carnial) then I use the hoof tester on the hoof wall at the heels. Finally, I apply the tester diagonally from the medial heel to the dorsolateral hoof and from the lateral heel to the dorsolateral hoof. The diagonal application is probably most useful for the horses with pads.

If sensitive is encountered, it is absolutely necessary to confirm that the examiner has revealed true sensitivity by the horse. True sensitivity is identified by repeated intermittent hoof tester pressure that results in persistent reflexive withdrawal (flexing the shoulder) obviously, different amount of hoof tester pressure are applied to elicit a response, depending on the sole thickness and the painfulness of the condition. Hoof Tester response should be compared with those obtained from opposite foot.

Hoof Testers

 

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Why Oral Surgery is performed?

Oral Surgery is a procedure in dentistry. It includes the diagnosis, surgical and related treatment of diseases, injuries and defects involving both the functional and esthetic aspects of the hard and soft tissues of the head, mouth, teeth, gums, jaws and neck. Oral surgery can be performed for

  • Dental Implants
  • Wisdom Teeth
  • Tooth Extraction
  • Bone Grafting
  • Impacted Canines
  • Oral Pathology
  • TMJ Disorders
  • Apicoectomy
  • Jaw Surgery
  • Facial Trauma

Medical Tools Oral Surgery Kit contains all necessary tools to perform a basic oral surgery. All instruments are made from medical grade stainless steel used by professionals.

Kit Includes:

  • Crile-Wood Needle Holder 14cm TC
  • Goldman-Fox Scissors 12.5cm TC Curved
  • University of Minnesota Retractor
  • College Tweezers 15cm
  • Crile Forceps 1:2 14cm Curved
  • Adson Forceps 12cm
  • Adson Forceps 1:2 12cm
  • Aspirating Syringe 1.8ml
  • Blumenthal Bone Rongeurs 15.5cm
  • Mouth Mirrors with Handle
  • Dental Bone File Fig. 10
  • Hemingway Bone Curette Fig. 2
  • Molt Periosteal Elevator Fig. 7
  • Scalpel Handle #3
  • Elevator Apexo Fig. 301
  • Elevator Seldin Fig. 34
  • Elevator Heidbrink Fig. 1
  • Elevator Heidbrink Fig. 2
  • Elevator Heidbrink Fig. 3
  • Sterilization Cassette 20 Holds

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 




Dental Extracting Forceps and their application

Forceps # Lower Incisors and Canines Upper Incisors and Canines Lower Premolars Upper Premolars Lower Molars Upper Molars Lower Roots Upper Roots Lower Third Molars Upper Third Molars Lower for Children Upper for Children
1
2
3
4
7
8
13
17
18
18A
19
20
21
22
22L
22R
23
24
29
29N
30
31
33
33A
33L
38A
41
43A
44
45
46
46L
48
49
51
51A
51L
51LX
52
54
55
56
59
59L
60
65L
32R
66L
66R
67
67A
67/L
67/R
68
74N
75
79
79A
79C
86L
86R
86C
86W
87
89
90
99
107
121
145
151
166
167
168
169
346
349
359
1
2
3
4
1
2
4
7
13
17
18
21
22
33
45
51A
67
74
79
86C
89
90
145
151
349
359
5
6
10S
16
17
18L
18R
23
53R
53L
65
69
88R
88L
101
150
150S
151
151S
222
37
39
39R
39L
51S
13S
22S
30S
33S
38
1
2
3
4
5
6
7