Male Dog Castration

What is Castration

Castration – Neutering is the surgical procedure which removes a dogs testicles (or testes).

Castration and Dog Behavior

Testosterone a steroid hormone is produced in testicles, as dogs grow, during their adolescence (6-18 months) the levels of this hormone increase such that secondary sex-related characteristics become more evident. These include mounting, leg lifting and higher levels of aggression. Removal of the testes reduces the production of testosterone and hence sex related behaviors.

Castration and Aggression towards Humans

Aggressiveness is the one of the greatest concern. There are various reasons of aggression and these also vary from dog to dog. Understanding these reasons, their causes and symptoms requires the experience of a trained behaviorist. Often it is as a result of the dog attempting to gain a higher rank within its pack (which includes your family). This is known as dominance aggression and surveys have shown that this form of aggression is more common in entire males than castrated males. In such cases, Vet or behaviorist may recommend castration as part of a behavior program to tackle this form of aggression.
On the other hand, dog’s discomfort with a particular situation or circumstance may result in fear or nervous aggression. There can be a number of reasons for this, but lack of socialisation during ‘puppyhood’ is usually the main cause. In such cases, a behavior modification program is unlikely to include castration.

Castration and Aggression towards other Dogs

Aggression between dogs is most often either fear aggression or dominance aggression. Fear aggression may be the result of a previous experience of being attacked, or because they feel they are unable to escape a particular situation. In the latter case, dogs are more likely to display fear aggression whilst on lead as opposed to being off lead. Canine castration would not be a part of resolving aggression caused through fear.
Castration may be recommended where aggression between dogs is orientated towards other males and where fear aggression has been ruled out. Castration may reduce the desire to dominate and reduce overall aggression thresholds. Additionally, castrated dogs smell less masculine and are less likely to be the focus of aggressive intentions by other dogs.

Castration and Dog’s Behavior

Castrated dogs smell different and can become the focus of attention from other males. This is particularly evident in recently castrated dogs.
Contrary to popular belief, there is no evidence that castration causes a dog to put on weight. It is true that after castration dogs can have an increased appetite and will eat more food if given. Hence the over weight is often due to over feeding rather than the effects of castration.
Castration does not affect an owner’s ability to train their dog. In fact many find castrated dogs are less distracted and easier to train

Alternatives to Castration

Some owners mistakenly believe that allowing their dog to mate will reduce their dog’s frustrations and consequently ease behavioral problems. This is not the case and in many cases things can get worse as the dogs interest in females and sense of status increases further.
Hormone treatments prescribed by vets can be beneficial in tackling behavior problems. They are normally in tablet or injection form and are a useful way of modifying behavior while other behavior improvement tactics are employed.

Advantages of Castration

There are several advantages of castration such as
•    It eliminates the reproduction potential
•    It reduces sexual activity
•    It reduces tendency to roam and fight
•    It reduces general level of aggression
•    It eliminate chances of testicular cancer
•    It resolve disease of the prostate gland

Disadvantages to castration

There are very few disadvantages to having dog castrated, it is a quick, safe and routine procedure, and there are no risks to pet though having low testosterone levels. Some of the disadvantages are

  • Unable to breed from dog.  Castration is not a reversible procedure.
  • Dog will undergo a general anesthetic.  General anesthetics are very safe, especially in young dogs, but all involve some risk, however low, to pet.  If you have any concerns, you should talk to vet.

Post operative care

  • The most important thing you can do after dog’s surgery, is to keep him rested.  Lead only exercise until the stitches are out is advisable.
  • The scrotum is very sensitive and can easily bruise or swell.  Sometimes it can become so swollen it looks like dog hasn’t been castrated!  Again rest is important to prevent this from happening.
  • It is also important he doesn’t bother with the wound by scratching or licking at it.  This will cause it to become inflamed, painful and possibly infected.
  • If you think dog may bother with the wound, Vet should be able to provide you with a ‘buster collar’, this is a lamp-shade collar which will mean he cannot reach it.
  • Vet should book at least one  post operative check up to ensure things are healing properly.  However, if you are concerned at all, you should seek veterinary advice immediately.

Castration myths

Castration will make my dog fat

+ FALSE – castrating dog will slow down his metabolism and may make him less active.  However, this is easily compensated for by cutting down on his food intake. It is over eating, not castration which makes neutered dogs over weight!

Castration is unnatural

+ FALSE – Often, the way our dogs live these days is unnatural, with little contact with other dogs and in a family unit.  Entire males can find this frustrating, especially if they are of a dominant character or they live near entire females.

Castration will change my dogs personality

+ FALSE – this is not the case, and often, castrated males can make better pets as they are less prone to aggression and mood swings.

Castration Age

Most of the veterinarians agree that the best age for castration is between 6-12 months of age. At this age the procedure is very low risk and easy to perform. Early castration is the responsible thing to do. It could save the dogs life and make him a much more desirable housemate.

Castration Instrument Kit

Medical Tools 23 Pcs professional quality Medical Tools Male Dog Castration – Neutering Kit contains all necessary tools to perform complete procedure. All Tools are made from Surgical Grade stainless steel and used by professionals

Kit Includes following Instruments
•    Olsen Hagar Needle Holder 16cm TC 01 Pcs
•    Kelly Forceps 14cm Straight 02 Pcs
•    Kelly Forceps 14cm Curved 02 Pcs
•    Mayo Scissors 15cm Straight TC 01 Pcs
•    Mosquito Forceps 12.5cm Straight 02 Pcs
•    Mosquito Forceps 12.5cm Curved 02 Pcs
•    Dressing Forceps 16cm 02 Pcs
•    Tissue Forceps 16cm 1:2 02 Pcs
•    Scalpel Handle #3 01 Pcs
•    Scalpel Handle Blades 04 Pcs
•    Backhaus Towel Forceps 11cm 04 Pcs
•    Adson Forceps 12cm 01 Pcs
•    Adson Forceps 12cm 1:2 01 Pcs
•    Adson-Brown Forceps 12cm 7:7 01 Pcs
•    Snook Hook 20cm 01 Pcs










Vaginal Examination in Equine and Cattle

Polansky Vaginal Speculum is designed for large animals, It is used for diagnostic examinations and other procedures. It holds the labia open so the vaginal vault can be viewed for swabs taking or direct medication to the uterus. it can also be used during the urinary catherterization of a female.

Medical Tools Polanksy Speculum is made of surgical stainless steel it can be processed for frequent sterilizations and long life.

with its butterfly screw its simple to operate, simply turn the hand screw until desired opening is achieved.

Measurements: Length from end to end of the entire instrument is 17 inches with a maximum spread of near 5 inches. The length from end to end of the speculum blades is 13-3/4 inches.










Sterilization with Sterilization Cassettes

Sterilization and Sterilization Cassettes

The use of instrument cassettes facilitates instrument processing and can greatly enhance the organization of instruments. It also keeps all the instruments for a specific procedure together from the chairside procedure through cleaning, rinsing, drying, and sterilization. Following completion of dental treatment, instruments can be arranged in the cassette, transported to the instrument processing area, and placed in the ultrasonic cleaner as a unit. The cassette also can be rinsed and dried in this manner. In addition, a cassette system can reduce direct handling of potentially contaminated instruments before sterilization. Furthermore, instruments prearranged in the cassette will require less handling following sterilization.

Perforated cassettes are preferable, since completely solid containers will not allow steam or chemical vapor to reach the contents and allow sterilization to occur. Cassettes can occupy more space than individual packages, so you should consider the size of the sterilizer and amount of storage space available before purchasing any cassette systems.

Benefits of Using Sterilization Cassette

Sterilization Cassette is a safe way to handle instruments; it securely retains instruments in a perforated housing. Sterilization Cassette benefits you in multiple ways

  • A Safer Way to Handle Instruments
  • Organized Procedure Kits Save Time
  • Simplify and Reduce Instruments Processing Time.
  • Procedure times will be improved with a systematic approach.
  • Eliminating the need to handle sharp instruments during the sterilization
  • Reduced risk of injury to staff
  • Protect instruments from premature dulling and failure.
  • Reduce Procedure Time
  • Reduce Instrument Replacement Cost  due to dull and broken Instruments.

Medical Tools Sterilization Cassettes are choice of professionals because

  • Made from rust free high grade non-magnet stainless
  • with Silicon Racks
  • Easy to use
  • Optimum Cleaning action
  • 3 Cassette Sizes

Storage of Sterilized Instruments

Sterile items and disposable (single-use) items should be stored in an enclosed storage area (e.g., cabinet or drawer). Dental supplies and instruments should not be stored under sinks or in other locations where they might become wet. Sterilized items should remain wrapped until they are needed for use.

Unwrapped items are susceptible to contamination. Avoid storing items loose in drawers or cabinets because unwrapped items cannot be kept sterile. Items stored in this manner are subject to contamination from dust, aerosols generated during treatment, and the hands of personnel who must handle them.










Suture Kit

Medical Tools comprehensive 7 pcs Suture Kit is designed for clinical needs and practical challenges. Suture kit contain tools for suturing and suture removal. All tools are made from high grade surgical stainless steel used by professionals.

suture kit

The Suture Set includes:

  • Mayo Hager Needle Holder 16cm
  • Tissue Forceps 1:2 16cm
  • Adson Forceps 1:2 12cm
  • Iris Scissors 11.5cm
  • Spencer Scissors 11cm
  • Adson Forceps 12cm
  • Dressing Forceps 16cm

Introductory Price Limited Time Offer










Dental Terminology

Abfraction Cavities Grooves formed in the neck of the tooth as a result of heavy tooth brushing, erosion and gum recession.
Abscess A swollen area within the tissues contains an accumulation of pus.
Acid etch A way that dentist’s use to stick or bond restorations using special chemicals.
Abutment The abutment to a bridge is the bridge support either side of the pontic or “false” tooth.
Acrylic Plastic
Adhesive bridge A way dentist’s replace teeth by way of a bridge when the false tooth is supported by wings glued to each tooth either side
Alvogel An antibacterial gel used by a dentist to treat a dry socket usually after extraction.
Amalgam filling An alloy of mercury and silver plus other metals to give a set material.  Not tooth colored.
Anaesthesia The absence of any pain
Anaesthetic A local anaesthetic usually lignocaine and adrenaline
Analgesia In the absence of pain
Angles Classification III Malocclusion Where the lower incisor edges lie in front of the upper incisors
Apicectomy A surgical procedure usually carried out by an oral maxillo facial surgeon which is used when root canal treatment has failed.  The procedure involves the dentist drilling away a section from the bottom (apex) of the tooth through the gum line.  Is often used as a last resort prior to extraction.
Apical Root tip (apex) of a tooth
Apical area An area of infection around the bottom of the tooth where it lies in the jawbone.  Often can be seen as a dark area on any x-rays (radiographs).
Apexit Brand name of a root canal sealant material.
Articulator (includes semi adjustable articulator) A mechanical device that reproduces the way teeth bite together, often used in orthodontic treatment.
Articulating Paper A special type of dental “paper” that is placed between the teeth to show high spots when the patient bites down
Articulator Disc A disc of fibres between the head of the TMJ and the base of the temporal bone of the head
Aquacem Brand name for type of dental cement.
Atypical Facial Pain A painful syndrome with dull aching or throbbing pain.
Attrition The physical wear caused by the movement of the tooth against another.
Augmentation The addition of bone from elsewhere on the body used to increase the depth of bone prior to dental implants being placed to give them more support.
Avulsed The removal of a tooth as the result usually of a knock or other trauma
Bitewing Small x-ray/radiograph usually of a single tooth. Often used to assess individual or problem teeth.
Biteguard A soft plastic gumshield used to protect teeth usually from grinding and alike.
Bleaching (tooth) The use of a chemical agent to lighten the shade of a tooth
BPE Charting (CPITN) Often critical in periodontal disease negligence claims, The  Basic Periodontal Examination. The BPE score is a measurement used by a dentist on a small probe to test the healthiness of the tissues around the teeth. A score of 0 indicates good oral hygiene, with no bleeding on probing, whilst a high score of 4 (the maximum) is an indication of severe problems.
Bite raising appliance This is an mechanical appliance that covers the biting surfaces of the teeth and separates them, lifting them apart.  Often used in TMJ disorder cases.
Bone Graft Bone can be added to the jawbone from other parts of the body
Bonded Crown (Porcelain) A dental crown consisting of a gold crown overlaid with porcelain to give a nice white tooth colored appearance
Brace Orthodontic appliance used to straighten teeth.
Bridge Dentist use bridges to replace missing teeth by way of fixing a false tooth to crowns fixed to adjacent teeth.
Buccal Dental terminology for the outer side of the tooth facing toward the cheek
Bruxism An abnormal tooth grinding habit
Calcification The pulp chamber inside the tooth can sometimes close up due to trauma reaction.
Calculus Hard deposits which form on the surfaces of the teeth and cannot be removed by brushing alone.
Caries Dental decay usually caused by a build up of plaque and tartar.
Cantilever Bridge A type of bridge where only one abutment supports the false tooth.
Cast restorations Metal or porcelain bonded to metal placed onto the tooth in the form of onlays or crowns
Cavit Brand name for a temporary filling material.
Cervica lNeck
Chemfil A dental material used for providing aesthetic fillings.
Chronic gingivitis A severe inflammation of the gums.  Chronic gingivitis gives dentists an indication that periodontal disease could develop if not controlled.
Chrome cobalt denture This is a denture made of chrome cobalt and is a lot stronger than the traditional plastic denture.
Chronic adult periodontitis (gum disease) This is a severe breakdown of the tissues surrounding the teeth which holds them into the jawbone, and often also results in loss of jawbone.  It is caused by the body’s reaction to the bacteria around the teeth.  Chronic adult periodontal disease can cause tooth mobility, is very serious, but can often be difficult for dentists to detect due to no pain being felt by the patient.  Treatment is basically good oral hygiene from your dentist and a hygienist at regular intervals of 3 months or less.
CPITN Short for the community Periodontal index of treatment needs.  This indicates the need for periodontal (gum) treatment.
Class I Occlusion A normal bite
Clearance To extract all remaining natural teeth
Click A short sharp sound usually emanating from the TMJ.
Composite White filling material used instead of amalgam
Congenital A defect present from birth
Contraindication Where a certain course of treatment or drug should not be given in a certain situation
Crepitus A grating sound commonly associated with osteoarthritis
Core Used to build up a broken down tooth usually to receive a crown.
Coronal Simply means towards the crown of a tooth.
Corsodyl Brand name for an over the counter antiseptic mouthwash.
Cresophene A chemical cleaner less often now used in root canal treatments for disinfection purposes.
Crown A false tooth often called a cap
Cyst A collection of abnormal substances
Deciduous teeth baby teeth or teeth found in children
Dental Abscess A collection of pus at the tip of a tooth
Dental Caries/Tooth decay A disease dependant upon sugar causing demineralization over time.
Dental Implants Titanium screws placed in the jawbone which become integrated with the bone.  Gives a stable support for the placement of prosthesis (artificial teeth)
Dental plaque Soft bacterial deposit left on teeth, can be removed by good  brushing.
Dental Pulp Blood vessels and nerve tissues deep inside the tooth
Dentatus post A post often used for supporting temporary crowns.
Dentine The substance underneath your hard outer tooth enamel.
Diagnostic study models Study models made from plastic casts of teeth.  Sometimes mounted on a hinged articulator.
Diagnostic wax up A wax model of the proposed final result of restorative dentistry
Diastema A small gap usually found between the front teeth.
Difflam A brand name antiseptic and anti inflammatory mouth rinse.
Distal The way dentists describe an area of tooth facing towards the back of the mouth.
D.O Dental shorthand for “distal occlusal” meaning a filling extending across the top and back of a tooth.
Draining Sinus Describes when pus drains to the surface of the gumline
Dry Socket This is an infection of the tissues in the socket, which usually occurs after an extraction.
Duraphat A fluoride varnish painted on teeth to stop them being sensitive.
Durelon A brand name for a permanent dental cement.
Dycal A brand name for a sedative cement lining material usually used under a filling.
Dyract Band name for a temporary filling material
Elevator Dental instrument used to remove teeth.
Endodontics Is the study of root canal treatment
External resorbtion The root of the tooth is eaten away
Extract To remove a tooth
Face Bow A procedure which enables study models to be mounted in the correct position to the condylar axis
Fissure sealing The filling of the small cracks in the surface of larger back teeth to help prevent decay starting.
Fixed BridgeA prosthesis to replace missing teeth which is supported by implants
Flagyl Brand n ame antibiotic specifically used in gum infections.
Furcation The area where the roots divide in a tooth.
Fuji A brand name dental cement often used for permanently cementing crowns and bridges.
Gingivae The gums
Gingivitis Inflammation of the gums caused by bacteria
Gingivectomy The surgical removal of gum pockets
Glass Ionomer A type of dental cement. Grade 1 MobileA tooth that moves from side to side by a least 1mm
GP Short for “Gutta Percha”.  An orange, soft material (rather like blue tac!) and shaped like a toothpick and is uses for filling root canals during root canal treatment.
Gum disease Inflammation of the gums.
Gum boil A swelling found on the gum
Hypocal A substance containing calcium hydroxide and used for sterilizing root canals.
Hypoplasia A defect during development of the teeth. Can be seen as dark or light spots or discolored areas on the teeth.
ICP Short for Inter Cuspal  Position.
Immediate denture A technique where teeth are removed and a denture immediately fitted in the mouth.
Implant A titanium screw is inserted into the jawbone surgically, and then given at least 6 months to heal or Osseo-integrate with the jawbone and used to support a crown.
Implantologist A specialist concerned with implants
Inferior Dental Nerve This is the nerve in the lower jaw (mandible) which supplies sensation to the lower lip, lower teeth, and chin area.  Damage to this nerve can last many months with loss of taste ensuing.
ID Block The usual technique of anaesthetizing many teeth.  Aims to deposit local anesthetic around the inferior nerve.
Incisal edge The biting edge of a front tooth.
Infiltration The method of delivering local anesthetic solution.
Inflammation A physical condition in which part of the body becomes red and swollen after infection
InlayA type of filling which is inlaid into the surface of the tooth.  Usually made of gold.
Intra  oral radiograph Small x-ray usually taken of a single tooth.
Integration (osseo integration) This refers to the growing of the bone in the jaw usually around a titanium implant.
Intravenous (IV) Method of administering a drug into a vein
Kalzinol Temporary filling material.
Labial The surface of the tooth facing the lip
Ledermix A brand name used as a sedative dressing material.
Legend A brand name for filling material.
Lingual dental terminology meaning a tooth surface pointing towards the tongue.
Local Anaesthetic Method of numbing up a specific area without the need for general Anaesthetic.
Maryland bridg eA bridge which is attached to adjacent teeth by means of “wings” that are glued behind the adjacent teeth.
Mesial dental terminology meaning towards the front part of the mouth.
Metronidazole Brand name antibiotic commonly used to treat dental infections
M.O dental shorthand for “mesial occlusal”.  A type of filling that goes across the top and front of a tooth
Mobility Describes how wobbly a tooth is
MOD Dental shorthand for “mesial occlusal distal” A filling that goes up one side of the tooth, across the top, and down the other side.
Mouthguard Plastic appliance that fits over the biting surface of the teeth and protects them against trauma or grinding.  Often worn at night by people who grind their teeth.
Nayyar Core A type of filling material to provide a good base upon which to place a crown.
Needle Phobia An irrational fear of injections
Nerve A fibre that conducts nerve impulses
Occlusion The way the upper and lower teeth bite together.  Dentists have 3 classes of type of occlusion, type 1,2 or 3.
Occlusal The biting surfaces of the teeth.
Occlusal Equilibration The changing the shape of the teeth for better fit when biting.
Occlusal Splint A removable appliance affecting the relationship between the lower and upper jaw
OPG/OPT Short for “Orthopantograph”.  A full mouth x-ray showing both the upper and lower teeth and jawbone.
Oro antral fistula (OAF) A dental term meaning a communication between the mouth and the maxillary sinus.
Oral Maxillofacial Surgeon A surgeon of specialist training concerned with the head and neck.
Orthodontic appliance or braceAn appliance that is used to straighten teeth.
Oral Mucosa The lining of the mouth
Orthodontist A dental surgeon concerned with the straightening of teeth.
Overdenture Fits over a root or post left in the jawbone.
PA Short for “periapical” Small radiograph taken of a single tooth showing the details around the root area.
Parafunctional Habit Abnormal loads on the teeth due to poor habits
Palatal dental terminology meaning the surface of the tooth pointing towards the centre line of the mouth.
Parapost A metal post used to support a crown in a root filled tooth.
Panavia A brand name for a type of dental cement.
Partial dentures Dentures replacing some missing teeth as opposed to a full denture.
PBCshort for “porcelain bonded crown”. Porcelain covered over a gold full crown
Periodontal ligament The connecting ligament between a tooth and the bony socket.
Periapical (cf: PA) Area around the apex of a tooth-small radiograph showing details of the root and tooth apex.
Periapical Abscess Inflammation and pain at the apex of the tooth.
Periapical lesion Disease around the root tip of a tooth
Pericoronitis Infection causing pain and sore gums around a partially erupted wisdom tooth.
PGT short for “Prolonged gum treatment”. 
PJC short for “Porcelain Jacket crown”.
Pin Small metal post placed in a tooth to support a filling.
Pocket depth The amount of space between the gumline and the jawbone. measured in MM.
Pocket charting A guide to the health of the teeth and gums by measurement of bone support around teeth. Poly FA brand name for a permanent cement for crowns and bridges.
Pontic A false tooth.
Porcelain Veneer An artificial replacement to restore missing tooth structure
Post Crown A crown that is supported by means of a post placed into the root canal of a tooth, and to which a crown can be attached.
Precision attachment An attachment that is used to ensure a precision fit between a crown and a denture. 
Prosthesis An artificial replacement of an absent part of the body.
Pulp (nerve) The pulp chamber is deep inside your tooth and is the nerve.
Pulpectomy Partial nerve removal.
Pulp Necrosis Dead pulp
Pulpitis Inflammation of the pulp (nerve) usually is a sign of infection.
Pus Caused by the build up of infected tissue
Radiolucency A dark area on an x-ray
Radiopaque A  light area on an x-ray
Relining A technique for tightening a loose denture.
Retention plate An appliance used to hold teeth in position after orthodontic treatment.
Retainer An appliance used to hold teeth in position after orthodontic treatment to stop them from moving back.
Retrograde root filling The sealing of the root apex of a tooth following an apicectomy.
Root canal treatment The removal of the nerve (pulp) from a tooth with a special instrument called a dental reamer (rather like a small dental file).  The root is removed, irrigated and shaped.  It is then filled with an inert material called Gutta Percha or GP and sealed.
Root filling A filling placed into the root after the nerve has been removed
Root Planing A deep form of scaling where calculus is removed from the root surface of the teeth.  Often used with patients who have periodontal disease.
Rubber Dam Sheet of rubber used to stop particles of teeth and dental instruments from being inhaled or ingested.  Used mostly in root canal therapy.
Sedanol A brand name sedative dressing material.
Sensodyne A brand name toothpaste.
Shimstock Paper thin foil used to check contact between opposing teeth.
Sinus Hollow cavity in the jawbone.
S&P Short for scale and polish.
Soft Lining Used to cushion the gums, it is a flexible material that is bonded to a denture.
Spoon Denture Small upper denture held in by suction according to the shape of the upper palate.
Supragingival Above the gum margin.
Subgingival Below the gum margin.
Subluxation Partial displacement of a tooth
Supernumerary An extra tooth.
TTP Short for “Tender to percussion” where a tooth is tapped with a dental instrument to test if infection or an abscess is present.
Tempbond A brand name for a temporary cement.
Temporomandibular joint The hinge joint between upper and lower jaws.
Temporary Bridge Uses a temporary structure to aid treatment planning.
TMJ Dysfunction Often diagnosed in the form of a clicking or grinding of the TMJ. Can be very painful, especially when yawning.
Trigeminal Nerve Provides nerve supply to the head
Tubiseal A brand name for root canal filling material.
Veneer Shell of porcelain or plastic placed on teeth to improve the aesthetic appearance. Works in the same way as a false fingernail.
Vitality testing Testing the tooth with a cold solution to see if the tooth is still alive.
Wear Facets The areas of wear on the cusps of teeth indicating a tooth grinding habit
White filling (composite) A mixture of resin and other materials to give a set material of tooth colour.D

Doberman Ears

Doberman EARS

The Dobermans “look” is that of a compact, powerful, medium sized dog
that shows an attitude and temperament reflecting great nobility and
confidence.  His short, tight coat and cropped ears and docked tail add
to his clean lines and effectiveness as an elite protection breed. But,
the docked tail and the cropped ears on the Doberman are historically
VERY FUNCTIONAL in origin and serve important purposes.


A docked tail was an important characteristic of the Doberman because
the tail represents a “body part” that can be easily and readily
injured.  Injury can happen by accident, such as knocking it against
hard surfaces or getting it caught between surfaces (doors, windows, car
doors) which can cause bruising, hematomas (pockets of blood),
sloughing off of hair and tissue, gangrene and terrible fractures of the
vertebra requiring major reparative surgery to treat and even save the
tail. The tail also served as a handle that an attacker could grab and
injure which could cause the dog to experience pain and trauma and cause
him to abandon his job of protecting his owner.  So docking was also a
functional part of the Dobermans effectiveness as a family protector.


Cropped ears, likewise, were the logical, functional addition to
complete the Dobermans physical equipment to make him the elite family
companion and protection dog that he was, even from the beginning. There
are two primary reasons that we desire cropped ears, and both have to
do with FUNCTION.  The first is that a neatly cropped ear is less of a
“handle” for an attacker to hang on to.  Since the Doberman has been
bred to be a personal protector, a cropped ear gives the dog a decided
advantage in a confrontation with a perpetrator. The second has to do
with sound “localization”.  An erect earred dog can localize the source
of a sound to within a 5 degree cone, whereas a drop earred dog can only
localize a sound source to within a 20 degree cone.  Since Dobermans do
SEARCH AND DETECTION as well as SEARCH AND RESCUE, cropped ears are a
decided advantage.


The DOBERMAN **STANDARD** asks for “ears, normally cropped”.  This
simply implies that they are cropped in a normal manner.  Many people
choose to leave their Doberman puppy uncropped.  These are mostly people
who have a Doberman as a pet only and do not exhibit them in
competition in the various AKC events. There is no disqualification for
uncropped ears, and people can and do show Dobermans that are not
cropped, in the US.  But, because the overwhelming majority of
exhibitors show their Dobermans cropped, perhaps it just looks like
there is no choice involved.  It is a matter of personal preference as
to crop or not crop their puppy and likewise to show a cropped or
uncropped Doberman in AKC events.


If the ears are cropped they must be cut in a shapely manner when the
Doberman is a youngster, usually between  7 to 10 weeks.  The ear must
be long enough to crop, and the puppy should not be too old that the
surgery becomes more difficult for the ears to successfully stand.


The Veterinarian puts the puppy under anesthesia and then proceeds to
remove the excess ear on the outside portion of the ear.  It is cut in
a curving and graceful design  and then the edges are stitched.  The
ears are taped over the head and wrapped with gauze for protection or
they are glued with surgical glue to foam or a Styrofoam cup or other
material to keep the ears upright and the edges exposed to the air for
good healing. The stitches are removed after about 10 days, and the ears
must be kept from puckering—which is the edges pulling together and
causing the ear to shorten because of the scar tissue in areas along the
cut edge.  The ears are examined everyday to make sure they are healing
well and when all edges are totally healed they are ready to be taped.


After the edges are fully healed, with NO SMALL OPEN WOUNDS the ears
can be rolled and TAPED.  Below is a website that will show the usual
manner that ears are taped.  The technique is demonstrated by Carol
Selzle Petruzzo, a very long time, successful breeder and Handler.  The
site is invaluable for learning how to care for and tape the healed
cropped ears.

There are a variety of lengths and shapes of cropped ears.  Cropping
is very artistic and each cropper has their own style.  The show
conformation Dobermans are cropped longer and more stylish than most pet
crops that an average Veterinarian would do.  The longer, more stylish
crops are beautiful, but they can take more time taping to get the ears
to finally stand.  Success with ears standing has a great deal to do
with persistence of the person taping and the technique.  Problems do
arise and it is best to seek the advice of an experienced Breeder or
very experienced Veterinarian that has cropped hundreds of ears.

Dog Ear Instruments – Dog Tools


submitted by

Theresa Mullen

DPCA Public Education Committee


Dental Spatulas/Cement Spatulas Double End

Dental Spatulas, Cement Spatulas - Double Ended Semi Round and Arch Head

Description: Used for spreading plasters and for mixing ointments and masses.

Length – 185mm,  (7.28″)
Blade – Semi Round and arch headed  blunt.

Buy Dental Spatulas










Cement Spatulas Double End

Dental Cement Spatulas, Double Ended Semi Round and Arch Head

Length – 185mm,  (7.28″)
Blade – Semi Round and arch headed  blunt.










Cement Spatulas from Medical Tools

Medical Tools has introduced most common types of Cement Spatulas used in Dental Treatment. We are offering following Dental Cement Spatulas.











Entomology Dissection Kit – Arthropod Examination Toolkit

Entomology is the scientific study of insects, a branch of arthropodology. At some 1.3 million described species, insects account for more than two-thirds of all known organisms. Like several of the other fields entomology is a taxon-based category; any form of scientific study in which there is a focus on insect related inquiries is, by definition, entomology. Entomology therefore includes a cross-section of topics as diverse as molecular genetics, behavior, biomechanics, biochemistry, systematics, physiology, developmental biology, ecology, morphology, paleontology, anthropology, robotics, agriculture, nutrition, forensic science and more.

Entomology is rooted in nearly all human cultures from prehistoric times, primarily in the context of agriculture (especially biological control and beekeeping), but scientific study began only as recently as the 16th century. Medical Tools 36 Pcs professional quality Entomology Dissection Kit (Arthropod Examination Toolkit) is compiled for school and college students & teachers. Entomology kit is used to dissect Insects including butterflies, flies, bees other insects. Entomology kit contains all necessary tools to perform complete dissection of insects. All Tools are made from Surgical Grade stainless steel and used by professionals We also makes custom design dissection kit items to meet with specific needs of schools and colleges. All tools are packed in Free Leather Pouch.

Kit includes:

  • 02 Teaser Needles Straight
  • 02 Teaser Needle Angled
  • 01 Iris Scissors 11.5cm
  • 01 Scalpel Handle #3
  • 01 Adson Micro Forceps 12cm
  • 01 Dropper
  • 02 Micro Dissection Forceps 12cm Straight
  • 02 Micro Dissection Forceps 12cm Cvd
  • 02 Entomology Forceps 10cm
  • 01 Tweezers with Magnifying Mirror
  • 01 Stainless Steel Scale
  • 06″ 10 Blades #10
  • 10 Blades #11
  • 01 Free Leather Pouch

Entomology Kit

Buy Entomology Dissection Kit – the Arthropod Examination Toolkit