CASTRATING CALVES AND LAMBS

CASTRATING CALVES AND LAMBS

By: Edward A. Leviness
Area Livestock Specialist 1(Retired) Cooperative Extension College of Agriculture The University of Arizona Tucson, Arizona 85721

Castration [emasculation], stated simply, is the unsexing of a male animal. The practice of castrating males, in animal species used for food production purposes, is universally practiced and is probably one of the oldest surgical operations known to man.

The purpose of castration is not only to prevent reproduction, but to improve the fattening and meat production capability and to make the animal more docile and easy to handle. In farm animals, other than horses, the job of castration usually involves simple surgery wherein the testicles (male reproductive glands that produce male reproductive cells and a hormone) are removed. Horse castration will not be

discussed here, except to mention that with the horse, in addition to the testicles, special attention must be given to the removal of certain tissues adjacent to the testicles, to prevent the animal from exhibiting a  level of false sexual activity sometimes referred to as

Elastrator — instrument designed to spread and secure a small rubber ring around the spermatic cords, thus stopping blood supply.

Burdizzo — instrument that crushes the spermatic cords inside the scrotum, thus stopping the blood supply, causing eventual atrophy of testicles.

Wound Dressing — medicinal preparation used to prevent infection of wounds and cuts.

Age: It is recommended that bull calves not needed for breeding be castrated sometime between 4-10 weeks of age.

Season of Year: Spring and late fall are the best times of year to castrate calves. This time not only coincides with customary ranch herd roundups, but also is a time when the chance of wound infestation from flies is reduced.

Position of Animal: Young calves, 4- 10 weeks old, should be thrown to the ground and held in a recumbent position. If it is necessary to castrate calves 8-9 months of age or older, these animals, when properly restrained, can be castrated in a standing position.

CALF CASTRATION

Equipment That May Be Used:

  • Jackknife — a cutting device with one or more cutting blades.
  • Emasculator — instrument designed to crush the tissue before it cuts them, and thus prevents serious hemorrhage.

Of the three methods of castration mentioned here, surgical castration is the one by far the most commonly used. A description of how surgical castration is used on calves is given in the following.

Methods of Castration:

  1. Surgical — involves cutting into the scrotum, removing the testicles and severing the spermatic cords. This is commonly referred to as “cutting the calf.” (Get Surgical Castration Kit)
  2. Burdizzo (bloodless castration) — in this method, the scrotum is not cut, but by the use of a special pressure-leverage instrument, termed a burdizzo, the spermatic cords are crushed and severed inside the scrotum. In using this method, it is necessary to “work” a cord to the side of the scrotum and then clamp the instrument about 1-3/4 inches above the testicle. The instrument should be held in this position for 3-5 seconds.Repeat the same procedure with the other cord, making sure the instrument is clamped about one inch below the point where the first cord was clamped. (Get Burdizzo Castration Kit)
  3. Elastrator — by the use of a special hand leverage device, called an elastrator, a strong rubber ring, about 3/ 4-inch in diameter, is stretched open and slid over the scrotum and testicles and around the spermatic cords. When the device is removed, the contracted rubber ring remains and squeezes the sper­matic cords to the point that no nutrients can again reach the testicles. This results in an atrophy, or wasting away, of the testicles. Of the three methods of castration mentioned here, surgical castration is the one by far the most commonly used. A description of how surgical castration is used on calves is given in the following. (Get Elastrator Castration Kit)

Procedures:

Step No. 1 — The bull calf is thrown to the ground and securely held in a recumbent position with the hind legs spread apart to permit access to the scrotal area.

To “throw” a calf, a team of “flank­ers” is used. In prac­tice, one member of the team reaches across the animal’s back and simultaneously grasps the calf’s right leg below the knee with his left hand and the rear flank with his right hand. He then quickly “lifts” the animal with his hands and exerts force under the animal’s abdomen with his right knee. This action will throw the calf off-balance and cause it to fall to the ground, resting on its left side. The team member now grasps the right (top) leg near the ankle with both hands and flexes it backward and, at the same time, exerts force into the calf’s shoulder with his knee(s). As the animal is being tentatively secured in this manner, a second team member quickly grasps the calf’s right (top) hind leg with both hands from the rear (Y) and, in a single motion, places his foot above the hock of the calf’s lower hind leg (X) and assumes a sitting position behind the animal. By exerting forward leverage with his foot and rearward leverage with his hands, this team member is able to spread the calf’s legs longitudinally, allowing access to the scrotal area.

Step No. 2 — Sanitation is important, so dirt or manure in the area of the scrotum should be removed. Although in regular ranch opera­tions the scrotum is not washed or cleansed, care should nevertheless be taken to keep the area as clean as possible.

Step No. 3 — Force the testicle upward in the scrotum and cut off the lower one-third length of the scrotum with a jackknife. This will expose the testicles from below. Grasp both testicles and pull them out clear of the scrotum. Next, open the jaws of the emasculator, place them around the spermatic cords and slide the instrument up the cords toward the scrotum. When approximately two inches of the cords are visible, close the jaws of the emasculator firmly, and hold the instrument in this position for 3­5 seconds. By the function of the emasculator, the spermatic cords

Step No. 4 — Apply a wound dressing and fly repellent to the scrotal area. Customarily, several other manage­ment practices such as dehorning, branding, ear marking or vaccinations are carried out while the animal is in this recumbent position. If and when these practices are completed, the animal can be released.

Note: Though the surgical method described in the foregoing is the one most commonly used, some stockmen choose to use a slightly different surgical technique. This technique consists of squeezing the testicle tight against the scrotum and then cutting through the scrotum to expose the testicle. Next, a small slit is cut in the membrane (tunic) covering the body of the testicle; when this is done, the exposed testicle emerges instantly.

The testicle is then pulled out and the spermatic cord is severed by the emasculator. The same procedure is followed to remove the second testicle.

LAMB CASTRATION

Equipment That May Be Used: Same with cattle.

Age: Male lambs not to be used for breeding should be castrated anywhere from one to two weeks of age.

Season of Year: Same as for calf.

Position of Animal: The animal is held in sitting position with the hind legs extended upward.

Methods of Castration: Same as with calf.

Procedures:

Surgical Castration Method — The steps in surgically castrating a lamb are the same as those followed in castrating a calf.

Elastrator Method — The elastrator castration method is probably used more with lambs than with any other farm animal. The method is quick, bloodless and very effective, if used properly. A review of the procedure follows:

Step No. 1 —  Hold the lamb in a sitting position on a table, with animal’s hind legs spread apart and pointing upwards.

Step No. 2 -  Place specially designed rubber ring in the elastrator. Stretch the ring and place it over the scrotum and testicles and around the spermatic cords. Care should be taken to ensure that ring is released well above the testicles and approximately one inch from the abdominal floor.

Step NO. 3 – If other management practices are to be done at this time, such as vaccination and docking, these can be done and the animal then released.

Area Livestock Specialist 1(Retired) Cooperative Extension College of Agriculture The University of Arizona Tucson, Arizona 85721.

This article is meant to be a resource of information only and must not be used as reference to perform castration other operations upon cattle/animals.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 




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Pig Catchers


Pig Catchers/Animal Snatchers/Holders
(or sometimes also referred as Animal Snares) are instruments to catch animals with ease. Mad dogs and wild pigs/boars are one of the most difficult animals to keep under control where Animal Snatchers come handy. These are also helpful for the veterinarians who need to control animals without giving them sedatives. Animal Snatchers prove a great help where you need to keep the animal at a reasonable distance as well as under control. Animal Snatchers also come with lock which hold the tightened string once it is pulled. Animal Snatcher for small animals is used for less-violent animals like sheep and cattle.

Pigs Catcher/Animal Snatchers are also available with gripping rubber and is particularly useful against Wolfs, Dogs and Hyenas.

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Polansky Vaginal Speculum

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Male Dog Castration

What is Castration

Castration – Neutering is the surgical procedure which removes a dogs testicles (or testes).

Castration and Dog Behavior

Testosterone a steroid hormone is produced in testicles, as dogs grow, during their adolescence (6-18 months) the levels of this hormone increase such that secondary sex-related characteristics become more evident. These include mounting, leg lifting and higher levels of aggression. Removal of the testes reduces the production of testosterone and hence sex related behaviors.

Castration and Aggression towards Humans

Aggressiveness is the one of the greatest concern. There are various reasons of aggression and these also vary from dog to dog. Understanding these reasons, their causes and symptoms requires the experience of a trained behaviorist. Often it is as a result of the dog attempting to gain a higher rank within its pack (which includes your family). This is known as dominance aggression and surveys have shown that this form of aggression is more common in entire males than castrated males. In such cases, Vet or behaviorist may recommend castration as part of a behavior program to tackle this form of aggression.
On the other hand, dog’s discomfort with a particular situation or circumstance may result in fear or nervous aggression. There can be a number of reasons for this, but lack of socialisation during ‘puppyhood’ is usually the main cause. In such cases, a behavior modification program is unlikely to include castration.

Castration and Aggression towards other Dogs

Aggression between dogs is most often either fear aggression or dominance aggression. Fear aggression may be the result of a previous experience of being attacked, or because they feel they are unable to escape a particular situation. In the latter case, dogs are more likely to display fear aggression whilst on lead as opposed to being off lead. Canine castration would not be a part of resolving aggression caused through fear.
Castration may be recommended where aggression between dogs is orientated towards other males and where fear aggression has been ruled out. Castration may reduce the desire to dominate and reduce overall aggression thresholds. Additionally, castrated dogs smell less masculine and are less likely to be the focus of aggressive intentions by other dogs.

Castration and Dog’s Behavior

Castrated dogs smell different and can become the focus of attention from other males. This is particularly evident in recently castrated dogs.
Contrary to popular belief, there is no evidence that castration causes a dog to put on weight. It is true that after castration dogs can have an increased appetite and will eat more food if given. Hence the over weight is often due to over feeding rather than the effects of castration.
Castration does not affect an owner’s ability to train their dog. In fact many find castrated dogs are less distracted and easier to train

Alternatives to Castration

Some owners mistakenly believe that allowing their dog to mate will reduce their dog’s frustrations and consequently ease behavioral problems. This is not the case and in many cases things can get worse as the dogs interest in females and sense of status increases further.
Hormone treatments prescribed by vets can be beneficial in tackling behavior problems. They are normally in tablet or injection form and are a useful way of modifying behavior while other behavior improvement tactics are employed.

Advantages of Castration

There are several advantages of castration such as
•    It eliminates the reproduction potential
•    It reduces sexual activity
•    It reduces tendency to roam and fight
•    It reduces general level of aggression
•    It eliminate chances of testicular cancer
•    It resolve disease of the prostate gland

Disadvantages to castration

There are very few disadvantages to having dog castrated, it is a quick, safe and routine procedure, and there are no risks to pet though having low testosterone levels. Some of the disadvantages are

  • Unable to breed from dog.  Castration is not a reversible procedure.
  • Dog will undergo a general anesthetic.  General anesthetics are very safe, especially in young dogs, but all involve some risk, however low, to pet.  If you have any concerns, you should talk to vet.

Post operative care

  • The most important thing you can do after dog’s surgery, is to keep him rested.  Lead only exercise until the stitches are out is advisable.
  • The scrotum is very sensitive and can easily bruise or swell.  Sometimes it can become so swollen it looks like dog hasn’t been castrated!  Again rest is important to prevent this from happening.
  • It is also important he doesn’t bother with the wound by scratching or licking at it.  This will cause it to become inflamed, painful and possibly infected.
  • If you think dog may bother with the wound, Vet should be able to provide you with a ‘buster collar’, this is a lamp-shade collar which will mean he cannot reach it.
  • Vet should book at least one  post operative check up to ensure things are healing properly.  However, if you are concerned at all, you should seek veterinary advice immediately.

Castration myths

Castration will make my dog fat

+ FALSE – castrating dog will slow down his metabolism and may make him less active.  However, this is easily compensated for by cutting down on his food intake. It is over eating, not castration which makes neutered dogs over weight!

Castration is unnatural

+ FALSE – Often, the way our dogs live these days is unnatural, with little contact with other dogs and in a family unit.  Entire males can find this frustrating, especially if they are of a dominant character or they live near entire females.

Castration will change my dogs personality

+ FALSE – this is not the case, and often, castrated males can make better pets as they are less prone to aggression and mood swings.

Castration Age

Most of the veterinarians agree that the best age for castration is between 6-12 months of age. At this age the procedure is very low risk and easy to perform. Early castration is the responsible thing to do. It could save the dogs life and make him a much more desirable housemate.

Castration Instrument Kit

Medical Tools 23 Pcs professional quality Medical Tools Male Dog Castration – Neutering Kit contains all necessary tools to perform complete procedure. All Tools are made from Surgical Grade stainless steel and used by professionals

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•    Mosquito Forceps 12.5cm Straight 02 Pcs
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•    Tissue Forceps 16cm 1:2 02 Pcs
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•    Backhaus Towel Forceps 11cm 04 Pcs
•    Adson Forceps 12cm 01 Pcs
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•    Snook Hook 20cm 01 Pcs

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 




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Vaginal Examination in Equine and Cattle

Polansky Vaginal Speculum is designed for large animals, It is used for diagnostic examinations and other procedures. It holds the labia open so the vaginal vault can be viewed for swabs taking or direct medication to the uterus. it can also be used during the urinary catherterization of a female.

Medical Tools Polanksy Speculum is made of surgical stainless steel it can be processed for frequent sterilizations and long life.

with its butterfly screw its simple to operate, simply turn the hand screw until desired opening is achieved.

Measurements: Length from end to end of the entire instrument is 17 inches with a maximum spread of near 5 inches. The length from end to end of the speculum blades is 13-3/4 inches.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 




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Doberman Ears

Doberman EARS

The Dobermans “look” is that of a compact, powerful, medium sized dog
that shows an attitude and temperament reflecting great nobility and
confidence.  His short, tight coat and cropped ears and docked tail add
to his clean lines and effectiveness as an elite protection breed. But,
the docked tail and the cropped ears on the Doberman are historically
VERY FUNCTIONAL in origin and serve important purposes.

 

A docked tail was an important characteristic of the Doberman because
the tail represents a “body part” that can be easily and readily
injured.  Injury can happen by accident, such as knocking it against
hard surfaces or getting it caught between surfaces (doors, windows, car
doors) which can cause bruising, hematomas (pockets of blood),
sloughing off of hair and tissue, gangrene and terrible fractures of the
vertebra requiring major reparative surgery to treat and even save the
tail. The tail also served as a handle that an attacker could grab and
injure which could cause the dog to experience pain and trauma and cause
him to abandon his job of protecting his owner.  So docking was also a
functional part of the Dobermans effectiveness as a family protector.

 

Cropped ears, likewise, were the logical, functional addition to
complete the Dobermans physical equipment to make him the elite family
companion and protection dog that he was, even from the beginning. There
are two primary reasons that we desire cropped ears, and both have to
do with FUNCTION.  The first is that a neatly cropped ear is less of a
“handle” for an attacker to hang on to.  Since the Doberman has been
bred to be a personal protector, a cropped ear gives the dog a decided
advantage in a confrontation with a perpetrator. The second has to do
with sound “localization”.  An erect earred dog can localize the source
of a sound to within a 5 degree cone, whereas a drop earred dog can only
localize a sound source to within a 20 degree cone.  Since Dobermans do
SEARCH AND DETECTION as well as SEARCH AND RESCUE, cropped ears are a
decided advantage.

 

The DOBERMAN **STANDARD** asks for “ears, normally cropped”.  This
simply implies that they are cropped in a normal manner.  Many people
choose to leave their Doberman puppy uncropped.  These are mostly people
who have a Doberman as a pet only and do not exhibit them in
competition in the various AKC events. There is no disqualification for
uncropped ears, and people can and do show Dobermans that are not
cropped, in the US.  But, because the overwhelming majority of
exhibitors show their Dobermans cropped, perhaps it just looks like
there is no choice involved.  It is a matter of personal preference as
to crop or not crop their puppy and likewise to show a cropped or
uncropped Doberman in AKC events.

 

If the ears are cropped they must be cut in a shapely manner when the
Doberman is a youngster, usually between  7 to 10 weeks.  The ear must
be long enough to crop, and the puppy should not be too old that the
surgery becomes more difficult for the ears to successfully stand.

 

The Veterinarian puts the puppy under anesthesia and then proceeds to
remove the excess ear on the outside portion of the ear.  It is cut in
a curving and graceful design  and then the edges are stitched.  The
ears are taped over the head and wrapped with gauze for protection or
they are glued with surgical glue to foam or a Styrofoam cup or other
material to keep the ears upright and the edges exposed to the air for
good healing. The stitches are removed after about 10 days, and the ears
must be kept from puckering—which is the edges pulling together and
causing the ear to shorten because of the scar tissue in areas along the
cut edge.  The ears are examined everyday to make sure they are healing
well and when all edges are totally healed they are ready to be taped.

 

After the edges are fully healed, with NO SMALL OPEN WOUNDS the ears
can be rolled and TAPED.  Below is a website that will show the usual
manner that ears are taped.  The technique is demonstrated by Carol
Selzle Petruzzo, a very long time, successful breeder and Handler.  The
site is invaluable for learning how to care for and tape the healed
cropped ears.

There are a variety of lengths and shapes of cropped ears.  Cropping
is very artistic and each cropper has their own style.  The show
conformation Dobermans are cropped longer and more stylish than most pet
crops that an average Veterinarian would do.  The longer, more stylish
crops are beautiful, but they can take more time taping to get the ears
to finally stand.  Success with ears standing has a great deal to do
with persistence of the person taping and the technique.  Problems do
arise and it is best to seek the advice of an experienced Breeder or
very experienced Veterinarian that has cropped hundreds of ears.

Dog Ear Instruments – Dog Tools

 

submitted by

Theresa Mullen

DPCA Public Education Committee

Reference: dpca.org/BreedEd/ears11.htm

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Entomology Dissection Kit – Arthropod Examination Toolkit

Entomology is the scientific study of insects, a branch of arthropodology. At some 1.3 million described species, insects account for more than two-thirds of all known organisms. Like several of the other fields entomology is a taxon-based category; any form of scientific study in which there is a focus on insect related inquiries is, by definition, entomology. Entomology therefore includes a cross-section of topics as diverse as molecular genetics, behavior, biomechanics, biochemistry, systematics, physiology, developmental biology, ecology, morphology, paleontology, anthropology, robotics, agriculture, nutrition, forensic science and more.

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Kit includes:

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Animal Surgery Kit

Animal Surgery Kit

Veterinary surgery is performed on animals by veterinarians. Most common surgical procedures in animals is neutering and minor mass excisions. In older dogs and cats tumors are a common occurrence.

Medical Tools 23 Instruments Surgery Pack is compiled for general surgery. The pack contain all instruments used for surgery. All instruments surgical grade used by professionals for surgery.

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Animal Eye Surgery Kits

Advance Eye Pack
11 Instruments Advance Eye Pack is compiled for professional eye surgery. Medical Tools’s Advance Eye Kit provides a full range of instruments for veterinary ophthalmic diagnostics, therapeutics and surgery. Ophthalmologists use these instruments in diseases of the eye affecting small animals, large animals, zoological and wildlife species.

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Wire Eye Speculum 1.25″ 1 Pce
Castroviejo Needleholder with lock smooth jaw 1 Pce
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10 Instruments Basic Eye Pack is compiled for eye surgery. The pack contain all instruments used for surgery. All instruments surgical grade used for basic eye analysis and surgery.

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Wire Eye Speculum 1.25″ 1 Pce
Derf Needleholder 4.75″1 Pce
Sterilization Tray 6″ x 3″ 01 Pcs
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Canine Spay Kit – Neuter Kit

Neutering is the removal of an animal’s reproductive organ, either all of it or a considerably large part. Neutering is the most common method in animals. In the United States, most humane societies, animal shelters and rescue groups (not to mention numerous commercial entities) urge pet owners to have their pets spayed or neutered to prevent the births of unwanted litters, contributing to the overpopulation of animals.

Advantages
Besides being a birth control method, neutering[males]/spaying[females] has the following health benefits:

  • Prevention of mammary tumors: Female cats and dogs are about seven times more likely to develop mammary tumors if they are not spayed before their first heat cycle.
  • Female dogs that have been spayed before their first heat have a lifetime chance of developing mammary tumors of about 99.5% less than that of intact females.
  • Pyometra is prevented, either due to the removal of the organ (when ovariohysterectomy is performed) and/or because of the lack of female sex hormones (oestrogen and progesterone) after spaying.
  • Uterine cancer, ovarian cancer and testicular cancer are prevented due to the removal of the susceptible organs.
  • Without its ability to reproduce, a female animal effectively has a zero risk of pregnancy complications, such as spotting and false pregnancies.

Disadvantages

  • As with any surgical procedure, immediate complications of neutering include the usual anesthetic and surgical complications, such as bleeding and infection.
  • These risks are relatively low in routine spaying and neutering; however, they may be increased for some animals due to other pre-existing health factors.
  • Neutered dogs have also been known to develop hormone-responsive alopecia

Procedure
In female animals, spaying involves abdominal surgery to remove the ovaries and uterus (ovario-hysterectomy). Alternatively, it is also possible to remove only the ovaries (ovariectomy), which is mainly done in cats and young female dogs.

The surgery is usually performed through a ventral (belly) midline incision below the umbilicus (belly button). The incision size varies depending upon the surgeon and the size of the animal. The uterine horns are identified and the ovaries are found by following the horns to their ends.

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  • Scalpel Baldes 05 Pcs
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  • Mayo-Hegar Needle holder, 6.75″ 01 Pcs
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  • Adson Tissue Forceps 15cm 4×5 01 Pcs
  • Snook Hook 01 Pcs

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